From Blue-IT.org Wiki
Digital Ocean (DO) is a great source for tutorials about using and managing Docker on Ubuntu.
There is surely also the Docker Blog (DB) for tutorials and news about Docker.
Here are the main themes you should be familiar with to get docker running on Ubuntu. You should at least read an test around the articles in the general section until you will be able to be productive - believe me or not, you'll see!
Basic informations using Docker on Ubuntu
The following gives you a base idea but without Docker Composer (next section) you'll miss the real fun. It only shows you how to save the state of a container as a new Docker image.
Docker Compose (I consider this the most interesting article):
The Phusion/Basimage of Ubuntu and why you could / should use it:
Docker Data Volumes and Shared Folders: